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Justice and Treatment

Buy custom Justice and Treatment essay

Buy custom Justice and Treatment essay

Justice requires every individual to be treated equitably, equally, and given what he or she deserves. Benefits and burdens should be equally distributed. Injustice occurs when a benefit which a person deserves is denied without a valid reason or when an excessive burden is imposed. Certain classes of individuals, the vulnerable populations, may be selected in clinical research because of their availability, dependence or they are to manipulate rather than for reasons pertaining the problem under study, thus they require protection as human subjects (DHEW, 1979).

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Informed consent: Subjects must be given the opportunity to choos what shall or shall not happen to them to the extent they can. The consent process must include three elements: information, comprehension and voluntariness.

Assessment of risks and benefits: The nature and scope of risks and benefits must be evaluated systematically.

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Selection of subjects: Fair procedures and outcomes should be used in the selection of research subjects (UNLV, n.d).

The famous cases of human subjects of abuse that were conducted by the Nazis during World War II, an illustration of  research involving prisoners which came to light in the Nuremberg Doctors’ Triaal  led to the Nuremberg Code of ethical conduct for human subjects used in research. In 1948, the Nuremburg Code was set up which advocates that voluntary consent of the human subject is vital; also the gains of the research must be more than the risks

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study led to the United States Congress approving the formation of the National Commission in 1974 that led to the publishing of the Belmont Report in 1979. Belmont Report is a declaration of the basic ethical principles like respect for persons, informed consent and justice and guidelines that assist in determining the ethical problems that surround the conduct of research with human subjects.

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