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Progress Paper 1: Rene Descartes; Does God Really Exist?

Buy custom Progress Paper 1: Rene Descartes; Does God Really Exist? essay

Buy custom Progress Paper 1: Rene Descartes; Does God Really Exist? essay

Part 1 and 2

Rene Descartes; Does God Really exist?

Rene Descartes in 1647 first published his first metaphysical approach to the religious faith. The crucial focus was on the question: Does God really exist? As an astute philosopher, he embarked on series of meditation over a period of six days with an intent of establishing whether God exists. Descartes explains that the critical question on the sole and God needed objectivity of mind that is free from theological beliefs and consideration. Descartes further avoided to engage believers in unmasking this question because of what he termed it as believers circular reasoning. It means that the obsession of referring philosophical discourse to the scriptures as a proof of God existence was irrelevant. In fact the argument of the reliability and the consistency of the scriptures would otherwise usher an adventure of thought and wool gathering reasoning, which Descartes discouraged from the beginning of this discourse.

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According to Meditation 3 by Descartes, the question of whether God exists dominates the recorded account. Descartes exemplified three ideologies that define the supreme being, these are fiction, which comprises of invented lies that obscure reasoning. Secondly was innate ideas formed by existing ideas and finally the adventitious ideas that originate from the experiences from that world. The ultimate conclusion is that the concept of God is innate idea and totally disowns those ideas linking God to fiction or adventitious line of reasoning. The conclusion was based on the fact that something can come from nothing, the infinite objective of idea of God and therefore, God possession of these attributes is a testimony of existence (Descartes and Donald 1993).

Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentiality and Human Emotion

Sartre strongly condemns the argument against the existence of a Supreme Being. However, it strongly condemns the quietism in the wake of grave human-related problems. Sartre points out the negativity panted on the world and terms them as a misplaced projection of fear, he strongly advocates people to focus more on the bright side of life. The theme of Sartre’s work is that the existence of humanism is real and the guidance of human action to act towards certain direction forms the intricate pattern of Godly relation that is though unforeseen appears to influence humanity. Sadly, according to Sartre, human beings have dwelt much into Christianity while denying the overt human relations challenges (Sartre 1971).

According to Tao Te Ching, question “Is Confucianism a Religion?” depicts a confusing state in as far as interpretation whether a believer or philosopher are concerned. In respect view of religion, this concept appears to totally contradict the benevolence that Descartes attributes to Christianity. Ideally, Confucianism is an early concept  that underscores the role of religion and indulges in rituals and ancestral spirits whose purpose is ordering and dictating societal conduct to lean to a particular direction. Despite the ban in China by the communist government on ascend to power in 1949, the practice of Confucius sacrifice is still alive in East Asia.

Confucianism ideologies and practice are the total opposite of the general philosophical orientation towards religion, arguably it represents the secular society and not any kind of spiritual reality (Peng 2008).

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Question 2: What is Harmonious Society?

According to Sartre, society with inner peace, charity and ready to face any eventuality forms the net harmony in the troubled human relations (Sartre 1971). Although Sartre had limited pursuit on the overall societal obligation on virtues and religion, he identified man dignity as an important recipe in a peaceful society. In sharp contrast to Descartes and Kant theories that put emphasis on individuality, Sartre identifies harmony as easily attainable because of the existence of those around people.

There are outer and inner virtues that should meticulously balance for a harmonious society, according to Tao Te Ching. It further highlights Li, also called propriety and good form as the most basic virtues of external domain. Existence of Li, defined by Chiang Tsu as a guideline to a modest course of action in the society under any circumstances. Confucius excerpt  defines inner virtue as self-correcting wisdom that serves as the conscience and guides people actions in a society towards the desired direction.

According to Confucius, the path to attain a harmonious society and ideal person in the society is created by the force of moral character that should be enforced from the core custodians of moral fabric (Fan 2010). Moreover, the teaching on society admits the fact that each person in the society has a space to grow in virtues to achieve accepted threshold that will in return foster harmony and societal freedom.

Part 3

According to Rene Descartes, exploring on the reality of God existence helps people understand God and the existence of spirits. When one focuses on his philosophical approach, it becomes clear that his approach is tact and the findings are well thought (Detlefsen 2013). One of the most crucial findings in his approach was the fact that he totally disregarded ancient philosophers who blindly dismissed God’s existence and embarked on a clear discourse of the universe analysis and all life forms. Arguably, it is the most successful approach in unmasking Godliness and spiritual world.

The focus on the virtues in the society and the answers to the societal harmony by Sartre and Confucius study are important. In the wake of a rise in moral decadence interlaced with religion confusion, the human race is on brink of regression. After years of ruthless society to the modern era of stringent rules and regulations that govern human relations, the focus on harmony in society is timely. From the second excerpt, it is clear that the shared ideas on virtues and morals by Confucius beliefs and to greater extent Christianity are clear manifestation of man’s efforts to thrive in morally upright society.

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