Lymphatic and Immune System
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1. Compare and contrast non-specific immunity and specific immunity. Be sure to discuss first and second lines of defense as well as cell-mediated and antibody mediated immunity.
Non-specific immunity activates the first and the second lines of defense whereas specific immunity involves the third line of defense that deals solely with lymphocytes. When it goes about specific immunity, once a pathogen is detected, it triggers the production of specific antibodies. Different response is given to different pathogens. Non-specific immunity involves the response that is more general. No immunogenic memory is generated through the non-specific immunity. Sometimes, its response occurs abnormally and it could destroy it.
2. Describe the events that occur during the inflammatory response. Explain the benefits to the healing process of the inflammatory response.
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In general, there exist eleven steps that in total constitute inflammatory response. It starts with constriction of blood vessels, which lasts only for a few seconds. Then, it proceeds with the dilation of blood vessels, increasing the overall blood flow and the speed of antibodies delivery. As the permeability of blood vessels increases, the fluid runs out of the blood and moves in direction of the inflamed tissues (Bech, 2014). The stasis of the blood is the next step. It causes the viscosity of blood. Then, neutrophils move to the site of inflammation, rolling in the blood vessels and finally sticking to their walls. The next step happens when neutrophils go through the walls of blood vessels and along a chemical gradient to the inflamed tissues. Then, neutrophils combat foreign bodies. This combat is expected to end up with full recovery of an ill person.
Inflammatory response is crucial for the healing process. It increases the blood circulation of the injured area letting the immune cells to pass. It results in strengthening of immune presence in the infected site (Bech, 2014). There could be also the increase of body heat having general antibiotic effects on the patient’s organism. Without the inflammatory response, the organism would be in danger of dying.
3. What trigger can causes the formation of antibodies? In what specific ways do antibodies protect the body? Discuss active and passive immunity and give examples of each.
When a foreign body invades the organism of a person, it is called antigen. In case it is detected, the body produces several types of cells that work together to detect and remove it. Then, these cells cause production of antibodies by B-lymphocytes. Antibodies are specifically created to fight the antigens (Boenisch, 2013). The latter are linked together, and in this combination, antibodies kill antigens. The B-cells, which produce antibodies, have long memory of the cures that are used against specific enemies. They are stored in the body for years and could be used quickly in a rather powerful way to kill the foreign body they have once fought against.
Immunity is generally divided into two types – active and passive. Active immunity is known to activate immediately after the primary immune response. It produces antibodies automatically. On the contrary, passive immunity does not produce antibodies themselves. The cells that are responsible for creation of antibodies receive them from injections of antitoxin or antibodies.
4. Briefly discuss the following immune system disorders and give examples of each type of disorder. Type I hypersensitivity (allergies), autoimmunity, and immunodeficiency.
Type I hypersensitivity refers to allergic reaction caused by the allergens. The exposure could be provoked by the injection, inhalation, or ingestion. Treatment includes the use of corticosteroids, antihistamines, and adrenaline. In case the whole body responses to the allergen, the anaphylaxis could occur and lead to fatal end. Examples of it are angioedema, urticaria, and allergic asthma.
Autoimmunity is a disease, causing organism to fail to detect its own cells as the part of the body itself (National Cancer Institute, 2014). Because of it, the immune system responds to the cells and tissues of the same organism. Any kind of disease caused in such a way is referred as autoimmune disease. The examples of it are diaabetes mellitus type, Hashimoto’s, Graves’ disease, etc.
Immunodeficiency is the failure of immune system to fight with the antigens caused by various infectious diseases. The researches state that immunodeficiency is usually caused by other illnesses; however, there are patients with born ineffective immune system. There are several types of immunodeficiency depending upon the function of it, which fails to operate normally. For example, asplenia occurs when a spleen does not function or there is T-cell deficiency, etc.
5. Consider the following lymph organs. Describe each, identify its location, and explain the specific ways if functions to support the immune system. Tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, and Peyer’s patches.
Tonsils refer to the set of lymphoid tissues located at the back of human throat. They are crucial for the normal functioning of immune system and are the first line of immune defense that fights against the pathogens previously inhaled by patient.
Spleen is an organ located in vertebrates. Its primary function is to filter blood. It is significant for the red blood cells and immune system (National Cancer Institute, 2014). It helps to remove the blood cells, which are too old, and preserves a blood reserve needed in case of a hemorrhagic shock. The same way a spleen recognizes old or faulty blood cells it detects the foreign bodies in the organism. When they are found, a spleen produces the number of cells called lymphocytes, which in turn produce antibodies that kill antigens.
Lymph node is an organ with the oval shape belonging to the lymphatic system located all over the body and linked by the lymphatic vessels. It holds the lymphocytes that are important for immune system and that produce the antibodies.
Thymus is an organ belonging to the immune system, which is located within the chest. It holds T-cells. These cells play a key role in functioning of adaptive immune system, as they are able to adjust to foreign bodies (National Cancer Institute, 2014). They fight the antigens that are detected by their receptors.
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