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College Student Sleep Problem

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Introduction

Over the recent years, psychologists have paid little attention towards the worrying sleep patterns within the country’s college students since these students have a very high risk of not having enough sleep. Students often undergo varying situations while in school like demanding and diverse co curricular schedules, divergent class times, as well as hectic social lives which then means that their sleep priority is definitely too low. Nevertheless, there are numerous problems and repercussions associated with constant sleep deficiency and insomnia where for instance it can be a main contributor towards students’ memory problems, reduction in the capability to concentrate and efficiency, disruption of physiological processes linked to blood pressure and hormone function, and more so difficulties in rational logic. This paper is aimed at analyzing and summarizing several research findings related to college student sleeping problem.

Even though getting eight hours of slumber every night has been known to be the general rule or rather guideline, personal requirements may differ from as diminutive as five to as numerous as ten hours of total sleep essential to feel refreshed and rested. I have happened to come across many students within the school who suffer from sleep debt and it has caused them real problems since that debt seemingly builds up over time causing serious impact to their learning process. Trying to repay this debt on weekends by having extra sleep feels like one is helping himself/herself except that unbalanced quantities of sleep may in fact serve to hamper with one’s sleep set and in the long run resulting in increased complexities in falling asleep, a condition called insomnia.

Sleeping issues are of high frequency among the youthful adults and apparently it has been revealed to affect different facets of their life quality. This particular study was aimed at investigating the youthful adults' surviving strategies for the sleep disturbances they experience and also the efficiency of these coping tactics upon daylight sleepiness and sleep quality as well. The subjects were recruited from students who had attended a health related course at a Taiwan public university. Among the total of about 3,000 students who had been issued with the survey package, only about 64% (1,922) finished the survey. The measures applied during the survey composed of three parts: a personal developed feedback form to evaluate the survey participants' sleeping program, supposed sleep troubles, and the coping tactics for slumber problems; the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (ESS). 44% of the students surveyed reportedly were experiencing sleep associated problems, and insufficient sleep was revealed to be the most widespread problem amongst the students covering (23.9%) (Chien-Ming, Wu, Ming-Hui, Ming-Hsiung, & Feng-Hwa 2003).

The most common coping strategies applied by the students were adjusting the sleep schedules and taking naps and they were linked to improved sleep quality. Conversely, subjects who testified trying a sleep encouraging activity, attempting with no success to come up with ways to cope with their issues, or overlooking their sleep troubles altogether reported a shoddier sleep quality. The researchers confirmed the towering occurrence of sleep associated problems amongst the youthful adults as it had been reported in earlier studies and more so it has revealed the comparative lack of efficient coping tactics for the managing of such like issues in current population (Chien-Ming, Wu,, Ming-Hui, Ming-Hsiung, & Feng-Hwa 2003).

The Central Michigan University carried a study on the sleep patterns of college students and found that many of their sleep patterns could probably have damaging impact on their overall daily performance. LeAnne Forquer together with a CMU psychology lecturer Carl Johnson, more than three hundred students were surveyed and the strata was comprised of fresher students all through to the graduates and lots of them disclosed that it almost took them 30 minutes to fully drop asleep or/and woke up at least 5 nights every week. The research study made conclusions that 1/3 of the total sample took further than thirty minutes to drop asleep while 43% apparently woke up more than just once every night. The college students who were sampled revealed that they had afterward wake times and bedtimes on weekends as matched up to weekdays, thus disturbing the circadian cadence, which is basically an individual’s 24 hour night-day succession that manipulates the quality and quantity of sleep (CMU study shows college student sleep patterns could be detrimental 2008).

The main purpose behind the study on the semester long alterations in terms of sleep durations for the college students was to evaluate the variations which occurred to students’ nightly sleep over one semester as based on year, residency, and gender amongst college students. Additionally, problems associated with perceived restfulness, features affecting sleep, and short sleep were also assessed.

The data set or rather the number of students surveyed was 820 from the Midwest University and they completed 4 divided monthly electronic survey's evaluating sleep period, together with perceived restfulness, modes of sleep conflict, time to wake and bed. The measures used in analyzing all the data sets SPSS (V.17.0) (Liguori, Schuna, & Mozumdar 2011).  

The research results indicated that sleep length arrayed from 7:30 hours to 7:58 all through, while the freshmen slept twenty minutes longer than the higher division undergraduates (p = .006). The general pervasiveness of petite sleep varied from 23 percent to 30%, along with students who indicated a mean mark of 3.39 days every week whereby they woke up feeling rested. The female students reported considerably longer slumber durations in the months of November and December as compared to that of September (p=.005, plus p= .003, respectively). The study concluded that the mainly common rationales behind sleep insufficiency were stress, leisure activities, socializing, and school/study-related work. Moreover, it reveals the magnitude of chronological data compilation concerning sleep period (Liguori, Schuna, & Mozumdar 2011). 

At the adolescence stage, many students tend to sleep less and late and sleep late because due to altered lifestyle and psychosocial changes. A recent study in  a medical college demonstrated the close connection between the character of sleeping less time and putting on weight in kids, teenagers, as well as adults. The core of the study was aiming at finding the consequence of sleeping less and late sleeping on the college freshmen’s Body Mass Index (BMI). The participants were 142 of which 104 were male while 38 were female adolescents, and had a mean age of 17.77±0.79 years (Kathrotia, Rao, Paralikar, Shah, & Oommen 2010).

Data of the students was collected using a closed ended questionnaire where they filled up their respective sleeping habits their weight and height followed after a short clinical examination and history taking. The statistical analysis was carried out by the use of Epi Info Statistical Software V. 3.3.2. The results showed that BMI increased drastically with decline in overall sleep period and also with deferred bedtime. Those students who slept after midnight had considerably less sleep period (6.78 hrs versus 7.74 hrs, P<0.001), and more daylight drowsiness (85.2% versus 69.3%, P=0.033). The research deduced that sleep habits of sleeping less and late sleeping contributed to an elevation of BMI. The research has not undergone any criticism or variance of interest (Kathrotia, Rao, Paralikar, Shah, & Oommen 2010).

A large State University in southern U.S. conducted a research on 1,845 students with the sole objective of examining the pervasiveness of danger for sleep related disorders amongst the college undergraduates by age and gender, and their relations to Grade Point Average (GPA). The methodology applied was an authenticated sleeping disorder questionnaire in the 2007/2008 educational year. The students' Grade Point Averages were acquired from the university’s registrar (Gaultney 2010).

The results revealed that 27% of students in the school were at high risks of at least a single sleeping disorder. Again, Asian and African American students had less jeopardy for fewer unfortunate sleep practices and insomnia comparative to Latino and white students. The students who had higher risks of having sleep disorders were those with GPA less than 2. The conclusion gathered from the study showed that a lot of college students were at risk of having sleep disorders, plus they had also a higher risk of educational failure (Gaultney 2010).

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