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Critical Literature Review

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The main topic of critical literature review is the relationship between gender inequality and work. From industrial times until global times, through his research, David Cotter (2004) mentions that although men and women do very different kinds of work these days, but they are much reduced compared to a half-century ago. Since the 1950s, women showed rapid increase in labour force participation. Moreover, the difference between earnings for men and women were women earning only 59 cents for every dollar earned by men. In 2000, it has increased to 73 cents. If these are the effects of successfully narrowing the gender gap, there should be causes or changes that precede the effects. Harvey Krahn (2011) criticize the fact that if women have gained access to better-paying jobs only through investing in higher education, then female income should be higher than male incomes. However, as women still have lower income compared to men, it can conceptually translate as there are more other factors that contribute to the gender inequality and work. Therefore, my research question of critical literature review is how does technological, economic, social and cultural changes over the different time period affected gender’s inequality at work? This topic deals with time which is linked in narrative sequence in ordr to describe, and critically evaluate, the history and present of capitalism’s economy of time. Moreover, how gendered patterns of work shapes and change over time.

Identification, Relevance, and Explanation of Sources

1)      Odih, P. (2007). Gender and work in capitalist economies. New York: Open University Press.

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Her book demonstrates the changes that were made to narrow the gender inequality. Industrial times, fordist times, post-fordist times, and finally global times are the main time periods that showed dramatic change about gender and work. The book also discuss the factors that contributed to the change of dramatic trends that were occurring in global labour market in different time periods, such as technological innovation, perception of masculinity and felinity in workplace, flexible specialization, and more. Therefore, her book contains theoretical relevance as these factors explain how gender’s inequalities were narrowing down over time.

2)      Cotter, D., Hermsen, J., & Vanneman, R. (2004). Gender inequality at work.

This report examines changes in work-related gender inequaality in the 1990s, placing these changes in the context of trends over the last half of the twentieth century. It focus on several of the most commonly cited reasons for the changes such as shift in human capital, and many other attributes such as education, experience, family status, changes in political and economic environment that women and men are involved in. Since change in both men and women’s attributes had huge influence about the topic, gender inequality and work, it has theoretical relevance with my topic.

3)      Hook, J. (2010). Gender inequality in the welfare state: Sex segregation in housework, 1965–2003.

This study contains 36 different time use surveys from 19 countries to examine household task segregation. It reveals that men do less housework compared to women. It also explains how inequality in household labour is linked to inequalities in labour market. And the researchers focused on how individual and household processes generate inequality in the home. It shows clear difference of gender with income, working-time, social construction of fatherhood and motherhood. Theoretically, this article clearly explains how the main causes of gender inequality at work presents through 36 different time use surveys.

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