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Domestication

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Domestication is substantially the process whereby, a large population of plants and animals, through a selection process has changed genetically through accentuating of characteristics that are beneficial to a human being. Domestication differs from taming in that phonotypical expression changes and genotype of all the animals changes (Berker, Hartmann, Punie & Ward, 2006). Domestication is an evolutionary process whereby species are influenced by human beings in articulation to relieve their own needs. Domestication is an artificial selection that is used by human beings. Human beings have under these circumstances brought the types of populations under control and care through a wide variety of reasons to synthesis food or other valuable commodities for help with other types of work (Atwell, O’Neal & Kett, 2011).

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Houseplants or ornamentals are plants that are domesticated for aesthetic enjoyment both in and around the home. Foods domesticated generally for large-scale production are called crops. The crucial distinction that occurs is that the domesticated plants are deliberately selected or altered due to various desirable features that have been identified on them (upre, 2001).

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In morphological and behavioral aspects, many distinctive characteristics arise between animals and plants. Hereditary reorganization of plants and wild animals into cultivated and domesticated approaches are formed in accordance to the interests of man. In the strictest approach, human mastery has been used to initiate change in plants and world animals. A distinction in domestication of plants and animals is that wild ancestors are created through the influence of human labor in order to meet various kinds of requirements for continuous care. This forms one of the major differences between the morphological and behavioral. Domestication has been implemental towards development of material nature and mankind in itself (Cassidy & Mullin, 2007).

In comparison to the wild plants and animals, domesticated crops and animals have undergone the most advancement. Morphological patterns that have been cited for instance in plants is that most domesticated plants have the tendency of ripening at the same time. Seeds that have over time been expanding through seed dispersal have now been harnessed through seed retention for better selection of the best breed. It has also beeen observed that seeds in agricultural fields are bigger that those in the wild and since planting is planned, the seeds germinate almost simultaneously (Cassidy & Mullin, 2007). In animals, behavior modification is the paramount feature in species that are targeted by humans rather than laying an emphasis on morphological advancement. Human efforts are able to select a breed that will be able to tolerate sexual precocity, penning and be able to withstand reduced aggression and wariness. This changes will mostly be observed indirectly on many occasions in lesser morphological features as seen in domesticated animals most strikingly being lopping ears, a brain size that is relatively small, their  facial bones are said to be smaller than their predecessors, and their dental structure has become smaller in size (Cassidy & Mullin, 2007).

Behavioral changes in animals as observed can be traced to human interaction with animals. Most notable behavioral change in domesticated animals is the reduction in animal response to the environment that they occupy. Through comparison of animals and plants in terms of morphological and behavioral approach there are distinctive features that continue to be evidenced.

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