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Management

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Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Abilities

One of the main features of the Western culture is the appreciation of reason. Traditionally, the followers of rationalism diminished the importance of emotions because of their contradiction to formal logic and rational way of thinking. In such a way, there was a connection between the intelligence and rationality. The cognitive abilities of a human get their formal representation in an abstract term of Intelligence Quotient. Besides, the development of the human thought revealed another branch of intelligence – the emotional one. In fact, except cognitive abilities, such as thinking, place orientation, understanding, calculation, learning and others, every person possesses some non-cognitive abilities. Among them are the abilities to control and reveal some emotions, to understand them in the behavior of other people, to evaluate and to express some emotional states.

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The relations between cognitive and non-cognitive abilities are very complicated. IQ reveals itself in more stable and rational results, when the EI has a sensual and unstable form. That is the reason why researchers could not recognize the EI as the integrative connection of the non-cognitive abilities for centuries.  Certainly, it is primarily because science relies on cognitive abilities through which one interprets the reality in a non-emotional, but a reasonable way.

One of the best ways of Emotional Intelligence realization is the social communication. For example, Baack claims that there are five features that may help to detect the level of a person's Emotional Intelligence. Those are self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, empathy, and social skills (Baack, 2012). In another way, social effectiveness of the human behavior is the result of the high level of EI. In the daily life, EI realizes itself as the level of a human's ability to communicate and to negotiate with other people. For example, when I speak with my friends about some of their personal problems, in some situations it is very important to provide them wit the psychological support and to understand when they need it. People cannot express their feelings in a rational way of language. That is why, their emotions serve for such a purpose. In such a way, EI helps me to recognize the emotions of my friends and to control and express my emotions during the communication with them.

ERG Theory and Maslow's Hierarchy

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One of the most important drives of the human behavior is motivation. The understanding of the motivational nature may help to ensure the personal development of people. It is very important for social organizations of any kind (where the effectiveness of the community depends on that of everyone). Maslow's Hierarchy and ERG Theory are two approaches to this issue that reveal different aspects of the same problem.

Maslow offered the hierarchy of five personal needs. It starts with the physiological needs and then grows to the next four levels in terms of personal development: need for safety, social activity, esteem and self-actualization. The principle of personal development has a satisfaction-progression nature. When one satisfies the next need, he or she moves to a higher level. In such a way, everyone's needs depend on his or her level of personal development. That is the root of motivation.

ERG theory is an attempt to simplify the Hierarchy of Maslow. Its author, Clayton Alderfer, offers only three factors of motivation: Existence, Relatedness and Growth. According to Baack (2012), Existence corresponds to Maslow's physiological needs and the need for safety, Relatedness – to the social needs, and Growth – to the needs for esteem and self-actualization. In such a way, both theories claim that people have to satisfy their needs. That is the main cause of motivation, which regulates the behavior of people. Besides, Maslow's approach has a humanist detail: people grow through the satisfaction of their needs, and that is the main factor of motivation. Accordingly, the ERG theory states that the root of motivation is the frustration a person wants to overcome. Both theories accommplish each other because they underline different roots of the same phenomenon. That is why, in a daily life, Maslow's hierarchy helps me to understand some details of my personal development and the growth of other people, while this development is free, unstoppable and successful. The ERG theory accomplishes the picture when I or some other people cannot satisfy the purposes and experience frustration. With the help of this approach, I can interpret such situations as dependent on a motivational factor, which makes people psychologically able to overcome their borders. In such a way, in different situations both ERG theory and Maslow's hierarchy reveal me the possible scenarios of the human behavior.

Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy

Self-esteem is a person's opinion concerning his or her potential, talents, abilities and personality in general. There are two kinds of information sources for that: internal and external ones. External sources of a person's self-esteem are all those sentences that other people express during the communication. Everyone can recognize some specific features in the same person. That is why each estimation has some value and a reasonable way is to take these assessments into account as useful information for improving the social skills. Besides, only a person can be present in all the situations that reveal different features of his or her character. The life experience provides the material for elaboration. In such a way, a person gets the self-esteem through an internal source – the mind.

Self-esteem is a significant category in management because it has a direct connection with the self-efficacy (Baack, 2012). A person can realize oneself in a right or wrong way, depending on his or her individual self-opinion. For example, having the low self-esteem, a person considers oneself impotent, weak, and ineffective. With such point of view, an employee cannot perform his or her functions effectively and has many doubts. The high self-esteem brings a contrary effect – employee thinks he or she can perform everything and possesses many talents.

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