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Dubois’ Program

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W.E.B Dubois emerged as the critic of Washington’s philosophy. He became known as the leader of the resistance. Before then in the 1890s Dubois and Washington read from the same script. They both believed that for the black man to emancipate himself from slavery, economic growth was the route to achieving that. But later between 1901 and 1903 saw the transition of Dubois’ philosophy. He found Washington’s program unbearable (Gibson, 2010). DuBois believed that demonstration, political battle and academic education would be used as a means to getting full citizenship by the black Americans. He insisted on the significance of liberal arts education since he believed leadership of the blacks would come from college trained individuals. In his essay entitled ““Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others,” he argues that Washington’s philosophy encouraged the inferiority nature of the blacks to the whites. He advocates for the rights of the Negros to take part in an election, civic equality and learning of the Negro youth. Dubois’ ‘talented tenth’ philosophy held that college educated elite would maneuver using their knowledge to gain economic elevation of the Negros.

Dubois founded a fundamental civil rights protest body the “Niagara Movement.” This movement started a campaign for complete equality and justice for blacks emphasizing on political rights in 1905. The movement insisted on compulsory education to all American children, adequate high school education and college education offered without preference to class. It also demanded for upright judges in courts and fair ruling not based on color of ones skin. The movement also pleaded for access to good health and better housing for the blacks (Du Bois,1903). In 1909 after the wide spread rioting and murders of Negros in Illinois, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People were formed championed by Dubois. NAACP comprised of both whites and black radicals who wanted to remove obstacles to complete nationality for Negros. It brought about Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. NAACP fought against discrimination and segregation in courts.

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Dubois’ program has an advantage in the sense that it pushed the whites to the wall to realize that the blacks were actually being oppressed and couldn’t hold it any longer. But the main disadvantage was that it led to confrontations that resulted in the loss of lives and development of bad blood between the two races.

In the modern world Washington’s program is the one applicable by the blacks in their struggle with the blacks. It is a civilized society and violence is deemed as backward and retrogressive. Mutual existence and diplomacy as illustrated in Washington’s philosophy should be the way forward.

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