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Basic Thermodynamics

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Temperature can be said to be the intensity of heat of an object. It is the description of how hot or cold a body or a particle is with respect to some reference scale. A notable fact in studying temperature is that subjecting bodies or particles to variations in temperature alters their properties in certain ways. There are three recognized standards for measuring temperature and these are Celsius, Kelvin and Fahrenheit. Temperature measuring devices rely on the zeroth law of thermodynamics which states that if two systems are at the same time in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

Scientifically, it has been proved that heat is one of the many manifestations of energy. As a consequence, heat and work are inter-linked. The notion that heat is the degree of hotness of an object is scientifically incorrect. Temperature is only a measure of the kinetic part of the heat energy in a body

In thermodynamics, systems are very important. A system is any part of the universe that is to be studied with respect to thermodynamics

The application of the law of conservation of energy to processes of a thermodynamic nature produces the first law of thermodynamics. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy is always conserved, it cannot be created or destroyed. In essence, energy can be converted from one form into another.

Through chemical experimentation, it has been established that at constant pressure, systems can do work by expanding. It follows that enthalpy is the sum of the internal energy of the system plus the product of the pressure of the gas in the system and its volume.

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