Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
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Diabetes mellitus 2 is a disease that is characterized by a high level of blood sugar. This means that there is no regulation of blood sugar. It is known that 90 percent of people suffering from diabetes mellitus have this type 2 diabetes. It occurs when the blood tissues become resistant to insulin, which leads to the inability to control the blood sugar level. It also occurs when there is a deficiency in the production of insulin. Insulin is responsible for regulation of blood sugar and if it is not available in the required quantities, individuals suffer from diabetes mellitus.
In this case study involving Mr F, many factors are identified as the cause of the disease. Living a sedentary life means that individuals do not exercise and this leads to the accumulation of fats in the body. When individuals become obese or accumulate too much fat, then the chances of developing the disease increase. Carbohydrates are converted into fats and stored in the body. The consumption of fatty food also leads to the accumulation of fats in the body. This type of diet increases the chances of becoming obese, since a lot of fat is accumulated in the body. As a result, this fat makes the body tissues resistant to insulin; therefore, blood sugar cannot be controlled. This unhealthy eating coupled with lack of exercise can be linked to the disease that affected Mr F.
However, other factors could have been the cause of the disease in the case. The disease can be passed from a parent to a child genetically. According to the case, the mother and brother to Mr F also suffered from the disease. It is possible that the disease was inherited. It is also important to note that people above the age of 45 have greater chances of developing the disease. Considering that Mr F was above this age, it is possible that the disease was caused by the age of the individual. It is also necessary to consider that individuals lose their muscles as they age. They also exercise less, which leads to the accumulation of fats in the body. This consequently results in diabetes mellitus 2.
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A cataract is an eye problem that affects the lens. The lens is usually transparent to allow light to pass through so that objects can be seen clearly. However, cloudy substances may be formed in the lens blocking light; hence, the individual can only see blurred objects. This is what is called a cataract. The problem occurs at an old age; moreover, it can be accelerated by diabetes. In this case, sorbital is an opaque substance that is formed in the blood of people who are diabetic. Excess sugar in the blood promotes the formation of sorbital. This substance collects in the lens, therefore, preventing light from passing through the lens. This results in cataracts, which makes the individual see blurred objects. Mr F was affected by a cataract and his age and the fact that he had Diabetes could be the reason why the problem occurred.
Diabeta is one of the drugs that are used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus 2. When this drug is administered, it makes the pancreas produce and release insulin in large quantities. The presence of insulin in the blood facilitates the decline in the blood sugar level. The danger with this drug is that even though the production of insulin declines with time after the drug is used, it may lead to decrease in the blood sugar level to a dangerous point.
People with diabetes mellitus 2 usually experience complications in wounds because they take much time to heal. The reason behind this is that decrease in levels of insulin in the body or increased resistance of body cells to insulin results in a reduced response to the injured tissue. It means that the immune system responds at a slower rate to the injured cells. In addition, high levels of sugar affect the immune cells negatively, slowing down the healing process.
The replacement of cast on the wounded area every week is important in preventing the development of ulcers. This replacement also ensures that the patient does not experience greater injuries on the wounded part, since sensitivity to injury is usually lost, resulting in injury without noticing. Replacing cast also helps to reduce the pressure on the injured part. The pressure is distributed to other parts of the injured arm so that the healing process is accelerated.
A person with diabetes mellitus should inspect the wound every day to find out whether the wound is healing or worsening. This is because ignoring the condition of the wound can result in complications that are dangerous. If the wound is not healing and instead it is becoming worse, it is recommended that a doctor be visited for appropriate advice. To identify the changes in conditions of a wound, everyday check is important.
Diabetic individuals have greater chances of suffering from hypertension. This problem can be associated with headaches, sweating, becoming nervous, and failure to sleep. With these signs, it is difficult to tell the disease that one is suffering from. The best advice is that the individual should have their blood pressure taken to find out whether they are suffering from high blood pressure. Regular exercise is recommended in this case, since the blood sugar level is reduced. The reduced blood sugar level facilitates reduced blood pressure in diabetic individuals.
Due to complications that result from diabetes, various medications can be recommended. These medications have different purposes. For example, Monopril is important in reducing heart failure and blood pressure. It has the effect of relaxing arteries and veins to allow easy blood flow, hence, reduced blood pressure. Lipitor is important in reducing cholesterol in the blood. It has the effect of interfering with an enzyme in the liver responsible for the formation of cholesterol. With no production of cholesterol, the liver uses cholesterol from the blood, hence reducing the level of cholesterol in the blood.
NORVASC is another drug used by people suffering from diabetes. It is used to reduce hypertension which can result in cardiac failure. This drug helps to reduce blood pressure. Also, Warfarin is important in the prevention of blood clotting in blood vessels. It reduces the chances of stroke and lowers blood pressure. Salatol, on the other hand, is used to ensure that the heartbeat is normal. It treats abnormal heart rhythms. It also helps to decrease the speed of heartbeat when it is too fast.
With a high level of glucose in the blood, a substance called HbA1c is formed. This product is formed when hemoglobin combines with glucose. The higher the level of glucose in the blood is, the more of HbA1c is formed. A test is usually done on diabetic patients to determine the level of the substance in the blood. The test helps to show the average level of blood sugar for a period of 3 months. This test is important in showing how diabetes is being managed. It shows whether there is a positive improvement in the management of diabetes for the previous 3 months. In this case, the level of HbA1c is found to be 7, which is close to 6.5 that is the most recommended value of the substance in diabetic individuals. Even though there is a deviation from the recommended level of the substance, it is not extremely dangerous.
Diabetic individuals usually bruise easily. There are several reasons behind this. First, the skin of a diabetic individual is weak and decolorizes due to the lack of insulin. This makes the skin easy to bruise. Second, the immune system of a diabetic individual is struggling with diabetes; hence, the low levels of immunity lead to easy bruises on any injured part. The accumulation of fats under the skin helps to prevent bruises. However, with diabetic individuals, carbohydrates are not converted into fats stored under the skin. Instead, the final products of carbohydrates are dissolved in the blood. The lack of fat accumulation under the skin is what results in easy bruises.
With the awareness that diabetic individuals bruise easily, certain precautions should be taken to avoid this. These people should eat a diet rich in vitamin C. Fruits such as citruses are rich in this. Vitamin C increases the elasticity of the skin, therefore, reducing easy bruising.
Another solution is to eat food that is rich in vitamin K. This vitamin is important in that it facilitates the healing of existing bruises. Vitamin K is also associated with reduced chances of bruising. Foods such as kales are rich in vitamin K and can help in this case.
The environment that one lives in is also important. Diabetic individuals should avoid environments that increase the chances of bruising. Also, individuals should be careful when walking to avoid bruising. Bruising should be avoided, since it is dangerous. If one has a bruise, it should be taken seriously to avoid further complications.
Furthermore, diabetic individuals should abstain from smoking, as it is associated with a reduced immune system and interferes with blood circulation in the body. This facilitates easy bruising. Abstaining from smoking can, therefore, help avoid easy bruising in diabetic individuals.
Diabetes has several long-term effects according to this case. In the first place, it causes visionary problems. Cataracts are formed in the lens leading to blurred vision. Secondly, diabetes may lead to walking problems because the blood vessels that supply leg tissues with blood are affected. As a result, the oxygen supply in these tissues is reduced, which causes pain when walking. The disease is also associated with increased blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases. These consequences of diabetes are dangerous in that they can lead to the death of the patient.
In conclusion, diabetes is a disease that can be prevented by healthy eating and exercise. It is important that people stick to a healthy lifestyle to avoid this disease. Diabetes is difficult and expensive to treat. People suffering from diabetes mellitus 2 should receive the necessary treatment and practice healthy living to reduce the effects resulting from the disease.
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