Creativity, Intelligence, Memory and Learning
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Memory is a function of learning, creativity, and intelligence. Memory processes and stores the information captured by the human senses. It governs what is learned, stored and retrieved for beneficial use. The application of this information in the memory can either be rigid and unidirectional or depict flexibility in seeking alternative solutions to problems. This creates a mix of learning in the memory and application of intelligence and creativity. Education systems are expected to exploit various avenues of learning and adequately maximize the power of memory. It subsequently translates to creative and intelligent solution from students in the system. The paper seeks to establish the correlation between memory, learning, creativity, and intelligence. Therefore, checking the correlation between education and creative productiveness in students is a fundamental way of assessing effective learning.
Most scholars discuss memory in two perspectives; as long-term and short-term memory. The short-term memory is considered a working memory and is extensively discussed in literature materials (Nistbet et al., 2012; Fasko, 2001; Mrazik, Bender, & Makovichuk, 2010). According to Nistbet et al., (2012), the working memory is defined as the active processing unit of the brain that stores and manipulates information as it is faced by distractions and other inhibiting responses. Therefore, the memory embraces processing, storage and manipulation of information. The working memory is responsible for learning and cognitive functioning. Learning is the conscious and/or unconscious effort of transferring information to the memory (Mrazik, Bender, & Makovichuk, 2010). It involves the transfer of content knowledge that is learned about different environments such as cultures and procedural knowledge that is studying systematic things such as counting. Also the non-cognitive traits are involved here. These traits mostly include self-regulating features that are initiatives such as the ability to wait.
Nistbet et al. (2012) notes that intelligence is the “ability to reason, plan, think abstractly,comprehend complex ideas and learn quickly and from experience.” Intelligence expands from book learning and taking tests to the capability to understand our surroundings. Thus, intelligence is marked by the ability to handle a difficult situation, learn, and adapt to various circumstances. It includes a well-developed creative mind and memory so that one has the capabilities of understanding issues. It enables him/her to assess and rationally face a situation. As noted, creativity is closely related to intelligence. It is viewed as the ability to generate fresh ideas, initiate new solutions to problems or adapt to unfamiliar situation. Creativity reflects originality and flexibility. Sternberg (2012), however, notes that creativity is a habit that is regularly followed until it becomes involuntary. This means that creativity can be learned. The creative attitude is pegged on the ability to respond to change.
Correlation between Memory, Learning, Creativity and Intelligence
According to Mrazik, Bender and Makovichuk (2010), the working memory is responsible for solving and learning problems by enabling comprehension and assessments. The memory also apprehends the surrounding environment. Working memory coordinates visuospatial, spoken, and episodic memories (Nistbet et al. 2012). Therefore, in the learning environment, a person is expected to keep either visuospatial, or spoken memories while solving mathematical equations, comprehending language or conducting abstract reasoning. Mrazik, Bender and Makovichuk (2010), note the memory stores learnt information, acquire new ones, and relate the information to the current goals.
Specifically, the school environment increases intelligence through content knowledge, procedural knowledge and development of non-cognitive traits. The skills integrate a system of recognizing, adapting, altering and managing changes that are very important for developing intelligence. Nistbet et al. (2012) noted that those children who delay immediate gratification scored higher in college. Thus, the learning environment capitalizes on the three functionalities of the working memory to enhance intelligence and creativity. <
According to Fasko (2001), creativity is an aspect of learning whereby learning induces insights. To achieve this function, learning must have the ability to transform information so that one can understand some insights. This involves solving a problem in an unusual way. Thus, learning produces two kinds of cognitive recognition in students. They are assimilators and explorers. Assimilators have a unidirectional way of doing things while explorers initiate new ways of solving problems. Similarly, Nistbet et al. (2012) notes that creativity is tied to intelligence and the two characteristics have high correlation.
Therefore, the memory offers a place to store information and practice intelligence while intelligence allows for learning and creativity to occur. On the other hand, learning has the ability to improving creativity, intelligence, and memory. Thus, the correlation between these aspects is more of a web than linear.
How to Enhance Student Learning Outcomes from the Correlation
In learning, cognitive exercises increase cognitive abilities by increasing remembrance processing speeds and reasoning skills. Equally, to enhance learning outcomes in students, education systems should increase the capacity of working memory. This enhances storage, processing and manipulation of information. Most importantly, cognitive exercises reduce the impacts of distractions and learning inhibiting responses (Nistbet et al. 2012). Fasko (2001) notes that explorers perform better than assimilators because they show greater levels of creativity in handling tasks compared to the latter. However, when memory is factored in, assimilators with high levels of experience perform better than explorers with low levels of experience. The latter provides stronger application in learning environments because students have level ground and no experience. Thus, they are in schools to learn. Therefore, education systems should produce explorers to increase the chances of creativity. Fasko (2001) further notes that students should be taught about their intellectual resources so that they capitalize on them to become researchers.
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